Geology 2081- Mineralogy

Spring 2016
Lecture: 9:00 - 10:20am T-Th; E-134 Howe-Russell Building
Lab: noon - 1:30 pm T-Th; meet in E-207, E-208; E-202 Howe-Russell Bldg

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Instructor: Prof. Dr. Barb Dutrow
    Room 203, Howe-Russell Building  (Old Geology Building)
    Office hours: 1:30-2:30pm T - Th; or by appointment
    Home Page:
    E-mail: dutrow@   (e-mail will be answered within 3 business days from 9am - 5pm M-F)
                    all emails end with

TAs:  Don Hood                                                                                     Trudy Watkins
             E300A Howe-Russell Geoscience Complex                                   112E Howe-Russell Building (Old Geology)
             Hours:  1:00 - 3:00 pm Monday; or by appointment                       Hours:  10:00 - 11:00 Friday or by appointment
             E-mail: dhood7@                                                                             E-mail: twatki7@

           Eleanor (Elly) Smith                                           
              201 Howe-Russell Building (Old Geology Building)                       
              Hours: 3:00 - 4:00 pm Mon and Tue; or by appointment
               E-mail: esmi123@

Required Materials for class
    Manual of Mineral Sciences, 23ed 
(2007),  Klein. C. and Dutrow, B. Required
             Hard copy preferred, available at various bookstores.
             If you are a geology major, this book is a valuable reference for future work.
            Available on-line for limited-time access to the book at: 

             Reading assignments should be completed prior to class. 
            Books must be brought to each lecture and lab 

 Clicker required - be sure to register it in moodle for the class

Hand lens for mineral identification in hand specimen (Purchase a 10x hand lens - needed for future geology courses)

3-ring binder to organize handouts and lab materials for class   

Contract: See end of syllabus for details on grading, (no) cell phone usage, make-up exams, grading, policies

Mineralogy - An Earth System's Approach

Tentative Lecture and Exam Schedule

Date Topic

You will need a 3-ring binder for lecture handouts. Bring to every lecture and lab.

Chapter (Ch)  page numbers
Assignments due one week later
unless otherwise noted.
You must maintain a LABORATORY NOTEBOOK,
3-ring binder with all lab materials

Introduction - Mineralogy
(Review / reread your Introductory Text material for mineralogy);

Minerals - What they are, their relationship to the study of the Earth,  to other fields, the history of mineralogy.

Minerals in our lives - activity
(Chapter 1:1-17)

Self-assessment Questions.
Ch 1

Lab 1. What's in a name? or
In the Scheme of Things!
(How would you classify minerals?)

Check out weekly Earth happenings on Earthweek and Geology in the News. Learn more about careers in geology and geology at LSU.

Learn more about; minerals and gems

Physical Properties of Minerals  - Review

Self-assessment Questions
Ch 2
Lab 2: Physical Properties
Review Rock classification;
(Review Intro Geol material)

Bonding in Crystals

You must understand electronic structure
of atoms and ions; and the periodic table

Learn more about the periodic table,
here is a periodic table from LANL

Review Questions
Ch 3

Ch 3
p. 37 - 53
Lab 3: Bonding in minerals

How to view crystal structures in 3-D

Crystal Coordination 
Paulings Rules - all 5)

Self-assessment questions
Ch 4  67-85

Lab 4: Crystal Coordination 
(Exercise 3) to be completed as homework due beginning of lab Thursday Jan 29

Lab 5: Introduction to CrystalMaker - groups 1  - 10
Crystallographic Concepts:
Crystal Symmetry, External form

Self-assessment questions

Gestures for symmetry, 3D visualization
Ch 6

121-128 optional
Lab 4: Crystal Coordination 
(Exercise 3) - due beginning of lab

Lab 5: Introduction to CrystalMaker - jigsaw, discussion of assignments
groups 11 - 21

Lab 6: 2D Symmetry (Exercise 8)

Crystal Axes and Systems
(review Intro Geology material also) 

Self-assessment Questions
Ch 6
Lab 7:  3-D symmetry of blocks

make your block models

Lab 5: Introduction to CrystalMaker - jigsaw, discussion of assignments
groups 22 - 32
Crystal Symmetry:
Internal Structure, order and symmetry

(Homework: Space Groups)
Self-assessment Questions

Ch 7

Ch 7
Lab 8: Determination of 3-D symmetry, crystal systems; non centrosymmetric crystals

H-M symbols
Mardi Gras Holiday - no class
Think purple, green, gold minerals
Crystal Growth
Quiz: bonding, coordination, crystal systems, 3D vizy

Self-assessment Questions
Ch 10
218- 225
Lab 10: 3-D Symmetry

H-M symbols
(all crystal classes)  see pg. 120
(linkage between rotation axes and crystallographic axes)

Lab 11: Translational Symmetry
Determining Lattice types and 

Space Groups
(Exercise 17 )

 Escher patterns - check out this site for patterns  and space group

Physical Properties of Minerals:  Color

You will need  a mastery of material
on pgs. 38-46; know s,p,d orbitals

Visit CalTech's explanations: Color in Minerals

Self-assessment questions
Chpt 10
Color: 234-240
Lab 9: Causes of Mineral Color 

View more Spectra of Color in Minerals

View Gems

Systematic Mineralogy

Review of Earth's Structure 
Meteorites as clues

Mineralogy of the Earth's Core  

Native Elements: S, Fe, Ni
Self-Assessement Questions
Ch 5:

Ch 15


LAB EXAM I: Crystallography:

1D, 2D, 3D symmetry; rotational and translational
HM symbols, space groups, color in minerals, physical properties

Be on time!

Ch 19 begins mineral descriptions
Chapter 22
Use chapter 22 for remainder of labs for Mineral Identification
Mineralogy of the  Earth's Mantle 

Structures of Silicate Minerals
(Refer to handout of minerals)

Upper Mantle Mineralogy and Structures: 
Olivine, Inosilicates - pyroxene

Phase diagrams (Ch. 11:245-256)

Zoning in minerals -
Compositional variability in minerals

Self-Assessement Questions
Note: Ch 18 contains silicate structures
remainder of chpt for details
Ch 5


Lab 12: ID: Native Elements, Mantle Minerals  (inosilicates, oxides, S, garnets)

Identify minerals, determine properties in hand specimen

Learn more about planetary exploration, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune or Pluto.
Very cool NASA images:Earth and Planet

(to practice - see previous exam)

Crystallography through Internal Structure (space groups)
(Review Important Concepts for Test)

Lab 13: Optical Mineralogy
Introduction to minerals under the microscope (Ch 13 and handout) -

Lab 14:
Crystalmaker II - inosilicates

Upper Mantle Mineralogy and Structures: (cont)

Inosilicates - Amphiboles

in minerals

Self-Assessement Questions

graphs 104-108
Lab 13: Optical Mineralogy
Introduction to minerals under the microscope (Ch 13 and handout) -

Lab 14:
Crystalmaker II - inosilicates

Diamonds (Polymorphs)
    discussion of polymorphs
   (Hope Diamond)

p 85, 346-350
Ch 6: 131-142

Ch 9

Lab 15: Miller Indices, forms, parameters 

Prior to lab: Review Crystal Systems, HM symbols

Lab 14:
Crystalmaker II - inosilicates

Mantle Transition Zone; minerals/ structures:  oxides and spinel structure, other oxides and structures

Lower Mantle minerals/ structures: 
perovksite, garnet structures; post-perovskite

Self-Assessment Questions:

Chtp 13,


Lab 15: Miller Indices continued

Lab 16. Graphical representation of mineral compositions

review: Compositional variation; Solid solutions
- homework on solid solutions
10  Analytical Techniques for Determination of Minerals and their compositions

X-ray Diffraction homework
Chpt 14
Lab 16 : Optical mineralogy of olivine, pyroxene, amphibole

Lab 17.
Calculation of mineral formulae
Read p. 99-104 before Lab

Mantle minerals 2 - questions
; review hand specimens

Each group will sign up for time on the Electron Microprobe - out side of class time

Mineralogy of the Earth's Crust - diversity!

    Quartz (and its polymorphs),

Self-Assessment Questions:

Calculation of mineral formulae;
Fsp calculations

Have a firm foundation of rock types and general classification
Chpt 5
Intro material

Ch 21. 574-603
Lab 17: Tectosilicates - hand specimens
feldspars, quartz, zeolites

(review metamorphic and sedimentary rocks)

Visit Color in Quartz:

check out old exam

Test covers from end of Crystallography (last Test) through Mantle Minerals with an overview of the crust and tectosilicates that we cover.
Ch 13

Ch 14
Lab 18: Tectosilicates - optical and handout

feldspars, quartz in thin section
(review metamorphic and sedimentary rocks)

22 - 24
Spring Break - No Class!
Spring Break - No Class!

feldspathoids, zeolites 

Self-Assessment Questions

through tectosilicates, including Miller Indices, plotting, etc.
- clays

flipping the lecture - read and come prepared to answer questions
(di- tri octahedral; T-O, T-O-T layers)

Lab 19: Identify Phyllosilicates, non-quad inosilicates  - in hand specimen

mica group, brittle micas, clays,
spodumene, jadeite, aegirine, 
wollastonite, glaucophane,

Clay minerals; non-quad inosilicates

Non-quad inosilicates

Self-Assessment Questions:
Lab 19: Phyllosilicates in thin section, and review of tectosilicate;
bring optical handout

Lab: Determining Or, An, Ab contents, review triangular diagrams
Nesosilicates (other than garnet and olivine)
Al-silicates, topaz, zircon, titanite, staurolite (my favorite), chloritoid

Self-Assessment Questions:
491-501 Lab 20: Identify Neso- Soro- Cyclo- silicates in hand specimen

Hunt for your mineral
Learn more about petrology of metamorphic rocks,
to be announced
Field Trip - Houston Museum of Natural Science Mineral and Gem Hall

2008 Field Trip to Houston's Museum of Natural Science - Mineral Exhibit

2007 Field Trip - Gold Exhibit - New Orleans

2006 Field Trip to Avery Island Salt Dome -  Cargille Industries

2005 field trip photos

Sorosilicates,  Cyclo- silicates
epidote, lawsonite, cordierite, beryl, tourmaline

pseudomorphs, metamict minerals

Self-Assessment Questions:


Lab 21: Neso- Soro- Cyclo- silicates
Optical Mineralogy of metamorphic minerals  including phyllosilicates

Bring optical handout

see beautiful photomicrographs of metamorphic rocks
 Carbonates (sedimentary env) - flipping the lecture
(Things that microbes eat!!!)

Self-Assessment Questions:

Sulfates, Phosphates,
Self-Assessment Questions:
Chpt 17
Lab 22: Carbonates, sulfates,   phosphates
(sedimentary environments)  hand specimens

Halides, Oxides, Hydroxides Chpt 16
Lab 23: Oxides, hydroxides, halides hand specimens
(sedimentary environments)  -
Sulfides, native elements (ore minerals)
Ore Deposits: Sulfides, native elements
Environmental Mineralogy
Chpt 14 LAB EXAM 3
(Silicates, carbonates, PO4, OH)
Weekend April 24 - 26
Optional field trip to the Houston Fine Mineral Show

(Silicates thru Halides)
(link to previous exam)

Chpt 17 Rewards Challenge

see Mackay School of Mineral Silver Collection

Minerals in your life Chpt 14
LAB FINAL - Comprehensive

Tuesday, May 3

updated 1/12/2016

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     The Earth is a geological system, and mineralogy serves as a foundation for its study. Minerals are the fundamental building blocks of the Earth. This class provides the basis on which you will build the remaining of your geologic careers. Mineralogy is not only essential to geologists, but to everyone because minerals are also an integral portion of our everyday natural environment. 

    Minerals compose the Earth and form the Earth's substrate in which our food grows, they soften our water, they crack hydrocarbons, they cleanse hazardous wastes and they provide us with materials that bring our life above subsistence living. Consequently, it is imperative that they be understood and appreciated. Mineralogy is even more important now as we confront the many worldwide  environmental crises e.g. where to store hazardous wastes - in geologic respositories, how wastes interact with rocks and minerals, and where to locate aquifers for vanishing groundwater resources. 

    Each of us can make a difference when asked to vote on these issues and when discussing these topic with neighbors. In addition, minerals are simply beautiful to observe!

This class has been prepared with you in mind and to assist you on your future geologic endeavor. Our efforts into this course are considerable, we expect the same of you. Most of all, we love minerals and mineralogy and  hope you will too.


Enjoy !!!!!

Grading procedures:

  1. The grades will be based on performance on a combination of lab and homework exercises, three lecture exams, three lab exams, final exams and in class quizzes and attendance.
  2. For group labs, a score will be given to the group; i.e. all members of that group will receive the same score for that project.
  3. The breakdown of weighting of scores are:

            Letter grades will be assigned from the final numerical score based on the performance relative to the rest of the class.
            The top 25% of the 10 pt letter grade (A, B, C, D) will get a + grade; the bottom 25% gets a - grade.

Class Policies:
            Attendance: Mandatory.
If you are going to be absent, you must notify the professor ahead of time for an excused absence.
            Make up exams:
Lecture exams will be 5 essay questions; Lab exams will be 10 questions.
            Makeup quizzes
: None will be given.
            Cell Phones: No cell phone use is permitted during class. If you use your cell phone, you will be asked to leave class.
                 Class is a concentrated study time, if you are on your phone, you are distracted.
                During lab, you must ask permission to use the cell phone (for photography or searching)
             Example lecture tests are posted on the web; self-assessment questions are posted for EACH lecture.

              These tests and questions provide a study guide.
               You are responsible for all material covered in class and assigned as reading material
            Labs are due at the due date as given in class.
For each day late, 5 points will be deducted from your score until the labs are returned. After that date, a zero is assigned.
            If you are going to miss lab, you must notify Prof. Dutrow prior to class time.

This class requires that you learn to speak the language of the discipline, therefore you must memorize a certain amount of fundamental material, comprehend this material to understand conceptual information,  learn to visualize information in 3D, and combine this information to understand how minerals, and the Earth, work.

Here are some helpful hints to make Mineralogy easier and more fun!

  1. Review and Know Introductory Material in Physical Geology and Chemistry
    Class requires that you have a full knowledge of the rocks and minerals section of your Introductory Geology text. Reread that material. You must also have a working knowledge of introductory Chemistry, especially  elements and the periodic table. 
  2. Attend class
    You are required to attend class. Lecture material is derived from sources in addition to the book. To get an excused absence, you need to inform Dr. Dutrow prior to class if you are going to be absent from class and get the notes from a friend.

  3. Lab
    You are required to attend lab and to remain in lab the entire 1.5 hrs each session. During this time, there is always someone available to help and answer questions! Lab assignments reinforce lecture material and aid in comprehension. They should be thoroughly understood.

  4. Syllabus - Read what is listed.
    The syllabus is available on the web. Refer to it for any updates to material and follow the reading assignments.

  5. Tests and Self-assessment Questions
    Old tests are posted on the website so that all of you have access to previous tests. Working through these tests is a terrific study guide and will help you tremendously in the course. They help you know how I test. Self-assessment questions are posted to reinforce important concepts for each lecture.

  6. TAs and Professor
    If you have questions, take advantage of the T.A.s and the Professor. Feel free to make an appointment to see the professor, the TA or come during office hours.

  7. Enjoy the material!
  8. Occasionally there will be a lecture during lab time and lab during lecture. Reading assignments should be completed prior to the class period as they serve as supplemental material. Bring your questions to class.

 Students with disabilities: Louisiana State University is committed to providing reasonable accommodations for all persons with disabilities. The syllabus is available in alternate formats upon request. If you are seeking classroom accommodations under the Americans with Disabilities Act, you are required to register with the Disability Services (DS). DS is located in 115 Johnston Hall. Phone is 225/ 578-5919. To receive academic accommodations for this class, please obtain the proper DS forms and meet with me at the beginning of the semester.

Code of Student Conduct: Louisiana State University is an interactive community in which students, faculty, and staff together strive to pursue truth, advance learning, and uphold the highest standards of performance in an academic and social environment. It is a community that fosters individual development and the creation of bonds that transcend the time spent within its gates.  To demonstrate my pride in LSU, as a member of its community, I will:

  1. accept responsibility for my actions;
  2. hold myself and others to the highest standards of academic, personal, and social integrity;
  3. practice justice, equality, and compassion in human relations;
  4. respect the dignity of all persons and accept individual differences;
  5. respect the environment and the rights and property of others and the University;
  6. contribute positively to the life of the campus and surrounding community;
  7.  and use my LSU experience to be an active citizen in an international and interdependent world.

The continued success of LSU depends on the faithful commitment by each community member to these, our basic principles.

There are two areas that we will be particularly alert for in this class:


(1) Plagiarism is an extremely serious violation of academic integrity. The Code of Student Conduct defines plagiarism as “the unacknowledged inclusion, in work submitted for credit, of someone else’s words, ideas, or data.” (8.1-C.6)  


Plagiarism can occur in a myriad of forms and media.


Although most commonly associated with writing, all types of scholarly work, including computer code, music, scientific data and analysis, and electronic publications can be plagiarized. The aim of this section is to help students and faculty deal with the complex and important issue of plagiarism on campus.


(2) Copying - Copying from another student's test paper or assignment.

Alcohol Policy (PS-67 Illegal Use of Drugs and Alcohol Misuse): Louisiana State University is committed to maintaining an environment which supports the research, teaching, and service mission of the University. Although the University respects an employee's right to privacy, the illegal use of drugs or alcohol within the University community interferes with the accomplishment of the University's mission.  Louisiana State Law prohibits the consumption, possession, distribution, possession with intent to distribute, or manufacture of drugs described as controlled dangerous substances in the Louisiana Revised Statutes 40:964; and other statutes define the illegal possession and/or use of alcohol.  As such, the Department has reaffirmed the University policy of alcohol-free and drug-free environment on University property at all times and in areas and at times and locations where an assembly of students and faculty would be viewed as representative of LSU (field trips and field camp property as both represent LSU).

Interesting and Useful Mineralogy Links:

Mineralogical Society of America (MSA)
MSA Links
Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC)
Mineralogy Database
Geometry games click on "Kali" and load appropriate version
CalTech Mineral Spectroscopy Server
The Mineralogical Record (Magazine)
International Mineralogical Association
Keck Museum, Univ. of Nevada-Reno
Fersman Museum Collections
Amethyst Galleries’ Mineral Gallery
AGI Image Bank
Gemological Institute of America (GIA)
Diamonds Website