Geology 2081- Mineralogy

Spring 2014
Lecture: 9:00 - 10:20am T-Th; E-134 Howe-Russell Bldg
Lab: noon - 1:30 pm T-Th; meet in E-207, E-208; E-202 Howe-Russell Bldg

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Instructor: Prof. Barb Dutrow,
    Room 203, Howe-Russell Building  (Old Geology Building)
    Office hours: 1:30-2:30pm T - Th; or by  appointment
    Home Page: http://www.geol.lsu.edu/dutrow
    E-mail: dutrow@lsu.edu (email will be answered from 8am - 6pm M-F)

TAs:  Justin Hayles                                   
             E340C Howe-Russell Building              
             Hours:  1:00-3:00 pm Wed; or by appointment
             E-mail: jhayle3 @tigers.lsu.edu      

           Tasha Hoffmann                                            
             205 Howe-Russell Building (Old Geology Building)                       
             Hours: 10:30 - 11:30am Mon and Wed; or by appointment
             E-mail: thoffmann322 @gmail.com

            Chase Billeaudeau                                  
             Howe-Russell Building              
             Hours:  2:00 - 4:00pm M; 10:00-11:00 W; or by appointment
             E-mail: cbille1 @tigers.lsu.edu   

Text:    Manual of Mineral Sciences, 23ed  (2007),  Klein. C. and Dutrow, B. Required
             Available at various bookstores, or a limited time access to on-line book is available at:
             http://coursesmart.com/ 

             Reading assignments should be completed prior to class.  Books must be brought to each lecture and lab, 

Mineralogy - An Earth System's Approach

Tentative Lecture and Exam Schedule

Date Topic

You will need a 3-ring binder for lecture handouts. Bring to every lecture and lab.
Reading

Chapter (Ch)  page numbers
Lab 
Assignments due one week later
unless otherwise noted.
You must maintain a LABORATORY NOTEBOOK,
3-ring binder with all lab materials

January
 
16
Introduction - Mineralogy
(Review / reread your Introductory Text material for mineralogy);

Minerals - What they are; as integral to the study of the Earth, as important to other fields, the history of mineralogy.

Minerals in our lives
(Chapter 1:1-17)

Self-assessment Questions.
Ch 1
1-17

Lab 1. What's in a name? or
In the Scheme of Things!
(How would you classify minerals?)

Check out weekly Earth happenings on Earthweek and Geology in the News. Learn more about careers in geology and geology at LSU.

Learn more about; minerals and gems

21
Physical Properties of Minerals

Self-assessment Questions

Ch 2
19-36
Lab 2: Physical Properties

Review Rock classification;
(Review Intro Geol material)
23


Bonding in Crystals

You must understand electronic structure
of atoms and ions; understand the periodic table

Learn more about the periodic table,
here is a periodic table from LANL

Review Questions
Ch 3
53-65


Review:
Ch 3
p. 37 - 53
Lab 3: Bonding

Viewing structures in 3-D
28
moved to 30
Crystal Coordination 
(
Paulings Rules - all 5)

Self-assessment questions
Ch 4  67-85


Lab 4: Crystal Coordination 
(Exercise 3) to be completed as homework
Due TUESDAY Feb 4


Lab 5: Introduction to CrystalMaker
30
lecture cancelled
to be covered later

Crystal Structures; Structural variations
Examples of common crystal structures

Compositional variability in minerals
Ch 5
96-99
Lab 5: Introduction to CrystalMaker
Common Structures
Lab 4: Crystal Coordination 
(Exercise 3)

February
 
 
4
Crystallographic Concepts:
Crystal Symmetry, External form


Self-assessment questions

Gestures for symmetry

Ch 6
109-121

121-128 optional


Lab 6: 2D Symmetry (Exercise 8)

Lab 5: Introduction to CrystalMaker

make your block models
6
Crystal Axes and Systems
(review Intro Geology material also) 

 CD Rom - Module I: 

Self-assessment Questions
Ch 6
129-131
Lab 7:  3-D symmetry of blocks

Compositional variability - solid solution,
zoning (later)

Lab 5: Introduction to CrystalMaker

11
Physical Properties of Minerals:  Color 

You will need  a mastery of material
on pgs. 38-46; know s,p,d orbitals

Visit CalTech's explanations: Color in Minerals

Self-assessment questions

Ch 10
218- 225

Color: 234-240
Lab 8: Causes of Mineral Color 

View more Spectra of Color in Minerals

View Gems

13
Crystal Growth
 
Self-assessment Questions

Quiz: bonding, coordination, color
Ch 7
156-168

Lab 9: Determination of 3-D symmetry, crystal systems; non centrosymmetric

(linkage between rotation axes and crystallographic axes)



18
Crystal Symmetry:
Internal Structure, order and symmetry

solid solution, variability

(Homework: Space Groups)
 
Self-assessment Questions
Ch 7
143-156
Lab 10: 3-D Symmetry

H-M symbols
(all crystal classes)  see pg. 120
20
LECTURE EXAM  I
(to practice - see previous exam)

Crystallography through Crystal Growth
(Review Important Concepts for Test)

Lab 11: Translational Symmetry
Determining Lattice types and 

Space Groups (
Exercise 10 )

 Escher patterns - check out this site for patterns  and space group


25
Systematic Mineralogy

Review of Earth's Structure 
Meteorites as clues

Mineralogy of the Earth's Core  

Native Elements: S, Fe, Ni
Self-Assessement Questions
Ch 5
90-96

Ch 15
331-337

minerals:
342-350

Note: Ch 18 contains silicate structures

Ch 19 mineral descriptions -
 refer to both as needed

Lab 10: Optical Mineralogy
 
Introduction to minerals under the microscope (Ch 13 and handout)

CrystalMaker II

Graphical representation of mineral compositions

27
Mineralogy of the  Earth's Mantle 

Structures of Silicate Minerals
(Refer to handout of minerals)

Upper Mantle Mineralogy and Structures: 
Olivine, Inosilicates - pyroxene

Phase diagrams (Ch. 11:245-256)

Zoning in minerals

Self-Assessement Questions
Ch 18
434-438
remainder of chpt for details

overview
p.88-89
Ol
439
483-487
pyx
446-450
505-510
LAB EXAM I: Crystallography:

1D, 2D, 3D symmetry; rotational and translational
HM symbols, space groups, color in minerals, physical properties


Be on time!

 March
 


Chapter 22
Determinative
Tables
Use chapter 22 for remainder of labs for Mineral Identification
4
Mardi Gras Holiday

Think purple, green and gold minerals!
6
Upper Mantle Mineralogy and Structures: (cont)

Inosilicates - Amphiboles

     Exsolution
in minerals

Self-Assessement Questions

Amp
452-456
514-519
exsoln
276-281

Lab:
graphs 104-108

Optical Mineralogy;

Crystalmaker II


Graphical representation of mineral compositions
11
Diamonds (Polymorphs)
    discussion of polymorphs
   (Hope Diamond)






Diamond
p 85, 346-350
polys
267-276

Lab:
Ch 6: 131-142
forms

Ch 9

Lab 12: Miller Indices, forms, parameters 


Prior to lab: Review Crystal Systems, HM symbols

13
Analytical Techniques for Determination of Minerals and their compositions
    XRD, EMPA, XRF, TEM

X-ray Diffraction homework

Lab 11. Calculation of mineral formulae (Exercise 19)
Read p. 99-104 before Lab

Excel calculation

review: Compositional variation; Solid solutions,

Chtp 13, 14
Lab 13: ID: Native Elements, Mantle Minerals  (inosilicates, oxides, S, garnets)

Identify minerals, determine properties in hand specimen

Learn more about planetary exploration, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune or Pluto.
Very cool NASA images:Earth and Planet

18  Mantle Transition Zone; minerals/ structures:  oxides and spinel structure, other oxides and structures


Lower Mantle minerals/ structures: 
perovksite, garnet structures; post-perovskite

Self-Assessment Questions:
oxides
375-389

Per
86-87
gar
487-490

Lab 14 : Optical mineralogy of olivine, pyroxene, amphibole

Identify minerals, determine properties,

Homework: answer specific questions

20
Mineralogy of the Earth's Crust - diversity!

Tectosilicates:
    Quartz, Feldspars


Self-Assessment Questions:

Homework:
Calculation of mineral formulae;
Fsp calculations

Have a firm foundation of rock types and general classification
Rocks
Chpt 5
Intro material

Ch 21. 574-603
Qtz
468-470
534-539
Fsp
470-477
539-544
Lab 15: Tectosilicates - hand specimen
feldspars, quartz, zeolites

(review metamorphic and sedimentary rocks)

Visit Color in Quartz:
Rainbow Quartz
25
LECTURE EXAM 2
check out old exam

Test covers from end of Crystallography (last Test) through Mantle Minerals with an overview of the crust and tectosilicates that we cover.
Ch 13

Ch 14
Lab 16: Tectosilicates - optical and CrystalMaker

feldspars, quartz in thin section
(review metamorphic and sedimentary rocks)

 CrystalMaker Lab
27

Tectosilicates:
   
    Feldspars
,
feldspathoid, zeolites 

Self-Assessment Questions:
fspd
544-549
zeolites
477-482
549-553
LAB EXAM II

through tectosilicates, including Miller Indices, plotting, etc.

April
 
1

Phyllosilicates:
   Micas,
- clays


Non-quad inosilicates

Self-Assessment Questions:

456-467
519-533

pxyd
510-514
Lab 17: Phyllosilicates, non-quad inosilicates  - hand specimen

mica group, brittle micas, clays,
spodumene, jadeite, aegirine, 
wollastonite, glaucophane, 
3
Nesosilicates (other than garnet and olivine)
Al-silicates, topaz, zircon, titanite, staurolite (my favorite), chloritoid

Self-Assessment Questions:

Geological Society of America Meeting
491-501







Lab 18: Neso- Soro- Cyclo- silicates
Learn more about petrology of metamorphic rocks,


to be announced
Field Trip - Houston Museum of Natural Science
Mineral and Gem Hall


2008 Field Trip to Houston's Museum of Natural Science - Mineral Exhibit

2007 Field Trip - Gold Exhibit - New Orleans

2006 Field Trip to Avery Island Salt Dome -  Cargille Industries

2005 field trip photos


8
Sorosilicates,  Cyclo- silicates
epidote, lawsonite, cordierite, beryl, tourmaline

pseudomorphs, metamict minerals

Self-Assessment Questions:
502-505

226-234

282-286
Lab 18: Neso- Soro- Cyclo- silicates
Optical Mineralogy of metamorphic minerals  including phyllosilicates

see beautiful photomicrographs of metamorphic rocks
10
 Carbonates (sedimentary env)
(Things that microbes eat!!!)

Self-Assessment Questions:

Sulfates, Phosphates,
Self-Assessment Questions:

Lab 19: Carbonates, sulfates,   phosphates
(sedimentary environments)  hand specimens


15 - 17
No Class - Spring Break!


22
Halides, Oxides, Hydroxides Chpt 17
399-416
Lab 20: Oxides, hydroxides, halides
(sedimentary environments)  - hand specimens
Sulfides, native elements (ore minerals) - hand specimens

24
LECTURE  EXAM 3
(Silicates thru Halides)
(link to previous exam)

Chpt 14 Rewards Challenge

see Mackay Silver Collections
29
Ore Deposits: Sulfides, native elements
Environmental Mineralogy
Chpt 17 LAB EXAM 3
(Silicates, carbonates, PO4, OH)

May
 
1
Minerals in your life Chpt 14 XRD: Environmental Mineralogy
Friday, May 9
5:30 - 7:30 PM
LAB FINAL
COMPREHENSIVE
Friday, May 9
7:30 - 9:30 AM
LECTURE  FINAL

COMPREHENSIVE

updated 2/21/2014

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MINERALOGY

     The Earth is a geological system, and mineralogy serves as a foundation for its study. Minerals are the fundamental building blocks of the Earth. This class provides the basis on which you will build the remaining of your geologic careers. Mineralogy is not only essential to geologists, but to everyone because minerals are also an integral portion of our everyday natural environment. 

    Minerals compose the Earth and form the Earth's substrate in which our food grows, they soften our water, they crack hydrocarbons, they cleanse hazardous wastes and they provide us with materials that bring our life above subsistence living. Consequently, it is imperative that they be understood and appreciated. Mineralogy is even more important now as we confront the many worldwide  environmental crises e.g. where to store hazardous wastes - in geologic respositories, how wastes interact with rocks and minerals, and where to locate aquifers for vanishing groundwater resources. 

    Each of us can make a difference when asked to vote on these issues and when discussing these topic with neighbors. In addition, minerals are simply beautiful to observe!

This class has been prepared with you in mind and to assist you on your future geologic endeavor. Our efforts into this course are considerable, we expect the same of you. Most of all, we love minerals and mineralogy and  hope you will too.

Course OBJECTIVES:

Enjoy !!!!!
 

Grading procedures:

  1. The grades will be based on performance on a combination of lab and homework exercises, three lecture exams, three lab exams, final exams and in class quizzes and attendance.
  2. For group labs, a score will be given to the group; i.e. all members of that group will receive the same score for that project.
  3. The breakdown of weighting of scores are:

            Letter grades will be assigned from the final numerical score based on the performance relative to the rest of the class.

            Make up exams: Lecture exams will be 5 essay questions; Lab exams will be 10 questions.
            No makeup quizzes
will be given.
            Example lecture tests are posted on the web; self-assessment questions are posted for EACH lecture. If you complain that you don't know what to study, then you have not looked at these.             These tests and questions provide a study guide.

            You are responsible for all material covered in class and assigned as reading material.

            Labs are due at the due date as given in class. For each day late, 5 points will be deducted from your score until the labs are returned. After that date, a zero is assigned.
            If you are going to miss lab, you must notify us prior to class time.

This class requires that you learn to speak the language of the discipline, therefore you must memorize a certain amount of fundamental material, comprehend this material to understand conceptual information,  learn to visualize information in 3D, and combine this information to understand how minerals, and the Earth, work.

Here are some helpful hints to make Mineralogy easier and more fun!

  1. Review and Know Introductory Material in Physical Geology and Chemistry
    Class requires that you have a full knowledge of the rocks and minerals section of your Introductory Geology text. Reread that material. You must also have a working knowledge of introductory Chemistry, especially  elements and the periodic table.
    Please re-read this portion of your Physical Geology Book and review this material from Chemistry.

  2. Attend class
    You are required to attend class. Lecture material is derived from sources in addition to the book. To get an excused absence, you need to inform Dr. Dutrow if you are going to be absent from class and get the notes from a friend.

  3. Lab
    You are required to attend lab and to remain in lab the entire 1.5 hrs each session. During this time, there is always someone available to help and answer questions! Lab assignments reinforce lecture material and aid in comprehension. They should be thoroughly understood.

  4. Syllabus - Read what is listed.
    The syllabus is available on the web. Refer to it for any updates to material and follow the reading assignments.

  5. Tests and Self-assessment questions
    Old tests are posted on the website so that all of you have access to previous tests. Working through these tests is a terrific study guide and will help you tremendously in the course. They help you know how I test and what to study. You will do well on tests if you study the old material. In addition, after each lecture self-assessment questions are posted to reinforce important concepts.

  6. TA's and Professor
    If you have questions, take advantage of the T.A.s and the Professor. Feel free to make an appointment to see the professor, the TA or come during office hours.

  7. Enjoy the material!
  8. Occassionally there will be a lecture during lab time and lab during lecture. Reading assignments should be completed prior to the class period as they serve as supplemental material. Bring your questions to class.

 Students with disabilities: Louisiana State University is committed to providing reasonable accommodations for all persons with disabilities. The syllabus is available in alternate formats upon request. If you are seeking classroom accommodations under the Americans with Disabilities Act, you are required to register with the Disability Services (DS). DS is located in 115 Johnston Hall. Phone is 225/ 578-5919. To receive academic accommodations for this class, please obtain the proper DS forms and meet with me at the beginning of the semester.

Code of Student Conduct: Louisiana State University is an interactive community in which students, faculty, and staff together strive to pursue truth, advance learning, and uphold the highest standards of performance in an academic and social environment. It is a community that fosters individual development and the creation of bonds that transcend the time spent within its gates.  To demonstrate my pride in LSU, as a member of its community, I will:

  1. accept responsibility for my actions;
  2. hold myself and others to the highest standards of academic, personal, and social integrity;
  3. practice justice, equality, and compassion in human relations;
  4. respect the dignity of all persons and accept individual differences;
  5. respect the environment and the rights and property of others and the University;
  6. contribute positively to the life of the campus and surrounding community;
  7.  and use my LSU experience to be an active citizen in an international and interdependent world.

The continued success of LSU depends on the faithful commitment by each community member to these, our basic principles.

 

Alcohol Policy (PS-67 Illegal Use of Drugs and Alcohol Misuse): Louisiana State University is committed to maintaining an environment which supports the research, teaching, and service mission of the University. Although the University respects an employee's right to privacy, the illegal use of drugs or alcohol within the University community interferes with the accomplishment of the University's mission.  Louisiana State Law prohibits the consumption, possession, distribution, possession with intent to distribute, or manufacture of drugs described as controlled dangerous substances in the Louisiana Revised Statutes 40:964; and other statutes define the illegal possession and/or use of alcohol.  As such, the Department has reaffirmed the University policy of alcohol-free and drug-free environment on University property at all times and in areas and at times and locations where an assembly of students and faculty would be viewed as representative of LSU (field trips and field camp property as both represent LSU).



Interesting and Useful Mineralogy Links:

Mineralogical Society of America (MSA)
MSA Links
Mineralogical Association of Canada (MAC)
Mineralogy Database
Geometry games click on "Kali" and load appropriate version
CalTech Mineral Spectroscopy Server
The Mineralogical Record (Magazine)
International Mineralogical Association
            COMMISSION ON NEW MINERALS AND MINERAL NAMES
Keck Museum, Univ. of Nevada-Reno
Fersman Museum Collections
Amethyst Galleries’ Mineral Gallery
AGI Image Bank
Gemological Institute of America (GIA)
Mindat.org
Diamonds Website
webmineral.com