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Unofficial Tourmaline World Records
Upper concentration limits of oxides or elements in tourmaline based on literature data and/or stoichiometry
 
Element Concentration: Wt% Oxide or [ppm]

Rock type

Comment

Reference

H

3.85%  

Stoichiometric amount in elbaite

 

He

       

Li

2.49%

pegmatite

Liddicoatite type material

Dunn et al. (1977)

Be

0.10%

-

-

Otroshchenko et al., (1971)

B

12.58%

11.15%

 pegmatite

type olenite material (core)

Stoichiometric amount in elbaite

 Schreyer et al. (2002)

C

       

N

       

O

       

F

2.05%  

Stoichiometric amount in F-elbaite

 

Ne

       

Na

3.30%  

Stoichiometric amount in elbaite

 

Mg

16.57%  

Stoichiometric amount in dravite

 

Al

46.43%

47.61%

Pegmatite

-

Olenite

Stoichiometric amount in olenite

Ertl (1995)

-

Si

39.02%  

Stoichiometric amount in rossmanite

 

P

       

S

       

Cl

0.024-0.102%

0.05-0.41%

Pegmatites to hydrothermal

-

SW England

-

Fuge and Power (1969) colorimetric analyses

Neiva (1974)

Ar

       

K

2.35%

1.0-2.2%

Meta-evaporite

Meta-evaporite

Povondraite locality

Povondraite locality

Zacek et al. (1998)

Grice et al., (1993)

Ca

5.50%

-

Uvite - Sri Lanka

Dunn et al. (1977) – e-probe

Sc

[170 ppm]

[222 ppm]

-

Pegmatite

-

-

Conklin and Slack (1983)

Lyakhovich and Lyakovich (1983)

Ti

2.87%

3.07%

3.25%

3.48

4.07%

-

mafic volcaniclastics

tourmalinite

meta-evaporite

-

-

-

uvite + qtz + sill

povondraite locality

-

Grice and Ercit, (1993)

Chaussidon and Appel (1997)

Mittwede (1984)

Zacek et al (1998)

Lottermoser and Plimer (1987)

V

39.35%

8.5%

meta-calc-silicate

Graphite schist

Qtz + Di + Cal + Tr + Tur

Qtz + Ba-V-ms + bt + tur

Reznitsky et al. (2001)

Foit and Rosenberg (1979)

Cr

22.85%

15.58%

13.90%

-

Altered Ultramafic

Chromitite

Orissa, India

Cc + tur + tlc + qtz (+/- mt,py)

Chromite + pargasite + tur

Dunn et al. (1977)

Slack et al. (1999) – proton probe

Michailidis et al. (1995)

Mn

8.86%

6.85%

6.72%

6.23%

5.94%

5.25%

4.34%

pegmatite

pegmatite

pegmatite

pegmatite

pegmatite

Tremolite-talc amphibolite

Tremolite-talc amphibolite

Elbaite-"tsilaisite"

Elbaite + qtz

"tsilaisite"

Elbaite

Elbaite

Trem + tlc + tur + braunite

Trem + tlc + tur + braunite

Shigley et al. (1986)

Rossman and Mattson (1986)

Nuber and Schmetzer (1984)

Burns et al. (1994)

Povondra et al. (1985)

Ayoso et al (1984) e-probe

Cotkin et al. (1989) e-probe

Fe

22.76% Fe2O3

20.04% Fe2O3

-

Altered rhyolite

Stoichiometric amount in buergerite

Buergerite

-Dunn (1976)

 

Co

1.25%

[45 ppm]

[22 ppm]

metabauxite

Aplite

-

Samos, Greece

SW England

-

Henry and Dutrow (2001

Power (1968)

Neiva (1974)

Ni

3.53%

0.75%

[1800 ppm or 0.23%]

metabauxite

Calcareous rock/serp

Altered Ultramafic (greenschist)

Samos, Greece

Cal + qtz + tur + cr-mt

Cal + tur + tlc + qtz (+/- mt,py)

Henry and Dutrow (2001)

Jan et al., (1972)

Griffin et al. (1996) – proton probe

Cu

2.38%

2.1% (or 16777 ppm)

Pegmatite

pegmatite

Paraiba, Brazil

Paraiba, Brazil

Fritsch et al. (1990)

Henn et al., (1990)

Zn

[4156 ppm or 0.52%]

0.75%

1.24%

1.72%

1.88%

2.85%

Sulfide deposit

metabauxite

-

pegmatite (internal intermediate)

-

pegmatite

With sphalerite

Samos, Greece

-

ab + mu + qtz + spodumene

-

with amblygonite

Griffen et al., (1996) – proton probe

Henry and Dutrow (2001)

Grice and Ercit, (1993)

Federico et al. (1998)

Hawkins et al., (1995)

Jedwab (1962)

Ga

[279 ppm]

[305 ppm or 0.04%]

[330 ppm]

0.11%

Pegmatite

Granite

Pegmatite

-

-

Mu + ab + chl

Elbaite + amblygonite

-

Lyakhovich and Lyakovich (1983)

Griffen et al. (1996) – proton probe

Keller et al. (1999)

Dubinina and Kornilovich (1968)

Ge

[6 ppm]

[75 ppm]

-

Altered granite

-

-

Neiva (1974)

Lyakhovich and Lyakovich (1983)

As

       

Se

       

Br

       

Kr

       

Rb

[200 ppm or 0.02%]

[260 ppm]

0.05% (or 457 ppm)

[1246 ppm or 0.14%]

Altered granite

pegmatite

-

pegmatite

-

Qtz + ab + lepidolite + tur

-

Elbaite + amblygonite

Lyakhovich and Lyakovich (1983)

Jolliff et al. (1986)

Kulikov et al. (1976)

Keller et al. (1999)

Sr

[1343 ppm or 0.16%]

0.34%

Tourmalinite

-

-

-

Griffen et al., (1996) – proton probe

Peltola et al., (1968)

Y

[1380 ppm or 0.18%]

[370 ppm or 0.05%]

[550 ppm or 0.07%]

Cu ore

Sulfide deposit

Quartz vein

-

Ccp + po + tur + mu + chl

-

Slack et al. (1999) – probable contamination

Griffin et al. (1996) – possible inclusions

Lyakhovich and Lyakovich (1983)

Zr

[340 ppm]

[3140 ppm or 0.42%]

-

Rhyolite lapilli tuff

-

qtz + chl + ser + tur + ccp + po + py + sph

Conklin and Slack (1983)

Slack et al. (1999) – proton probe

Nb

[229 ppm]

[490 ppm]

[1000 ppm]

granite

Rhyolite breccia

Altered grenites

-

qtz + chl + tur + sph + py + ccp

-

Neiva (1974)

Slack et al. (1999) – probable contamination

Lyakhovich and Lyakovich (1983)

Mo

[10 ppm]

Diorite

-

Lyakhovich and Lyakovich (1983)

Tc

       

Ru

       

Rh

       

Pd

       

Ag

[1.3 ppm]

[3.5 ppm]

[1546 ppm]

Quartz veins

Granite

tourmalinites

-

-

-

Lyakhovich and Lyakovich (1983)

Jiang et al. (1997)

Jiang et al. (1999)

Cd

       

In

[3.9 ppm]

[5.0 ppm]

granite

Pegmatite

-

-

Neiva (1974)

Lyakhovich and Lyakovich (1983)

Sn

[4580 ppm or 0.58%]

[746 ppm or 0.09%]

[799 ppm]

0.03%

Rhyolite breccia

Sulfide deposit

Quartz vein

-

Ser + chl + tur + qtz

Sph + cal + gal + po + qtz + tur

-

-

Slack et al. (1999) – probable contamination

Griffin et al., (1996) – possible contamination

Lyakhovich and Lyakovich (1983)

Nemec (1973)

Sb

[25 ppm]

Quartz veins

-

Lyakhovich and Lyakovich (1983)

Te

       

I

       

Xe

       

Cs

0.08%

1.86%

-

-

-

-

Morgan and London (1987)

Otroshchenko et al., (1971)

Ba

[690 ppm or 0.08%]

[510 ppm or 0.06%]

1.71%

Cu ore

Altered Ultramafic (greenschist)

-

-

Cc + tur + qtz (+/- mt,py)

-

Slack et al. (1999) – proton probe

Griffen et al. (1996) – proton probe

Dubinina and Kornilovich (1968)

La

[249 ppm]

granite

-

Neiva (1974)

Ce

[87 ppm]

[94.9 ppm]

-

tourmalinite

-

-

Jiang et al. (1999)

Roda et al., (1995)

Pr

[107 ppm]

granite

-

Neiva (1974)

Nd

[36 ppm]

[39 ppm]

-

tourmalinite

-

-

Jiang et al. (1999)

Roda et al., (1995)

Pm

       

Sm

[14 ppm]

-

-

Neiva (1974)

Eu

[0.59 ppm]

Tur-bearing dike

-

Jiang et al. (1997)

Gd

[82 ppm]

granite

-

Neiva (1974)

Tb

[1.3 ppm]

[0.5 ppm]

granite

-

-

-

Jiang et al. (1997)

King et al., (1988)

Dy

[9.85 ppm]

[4.5 ppm]

granite

-

-

Jiang et al. (1997)

King et al., (1988)

Ho

[2.1 ppm]

granite

-

Jiang et al. (1997)

Er

[6.25 ppm]

[4.83 ppm]

[1.6 ppm]

Granite

tourmalinite

granite

-

-

-

Jiang et al. (1997)

Jiang et al. (1999)

Neiva (1974)

Tm

[1.05 ppm]

granite

-

Jiang et al. (1997)

Yb

[6.5 ppm]

granite

-

Jiang et al. (1997)

Lu

[1.48 ppm]

[0.95 ppm]

Tourmalinite

granite

-

-

Jiang et al. (1999)

Jiang et al. (1997)

Hf

[5.2 ppm]

granite

-

Jiang et al. (1997)

Ta

[6 ppm]

[21.2 ppm]

[170 ppm]

[230 ppm]

Granite

granite

pegmatite (intermediate zone)

Altered granites

-

-

qtz + ab + tur

-

Jiang et al. (1997)

Neiva (1974)

Jolliff et al. (1986)

Lyakhovich and Lyakovich (1983)

W

[3712 ppm]

[751 ppm]

[12 ppm]

tourmalinite

Biotite granite

-

-

-

-

Jiang et al. (1999)

Lyakhovich and Lyakovich (1983)

Roda et al., (1995)

Re

       

Os

       

Ir

       

Pt

       

Au

[175 ppm]

-

-

Neiva (1974)

Hg

       

Tl

[6 ppm]

[7.5 ppm]

-

Pegmatite

-

-

Neiva (1974)

Lyakhovich and Lyakovich (1983)

Pb

[2830 ppm or 0.30%]

0.98%

1.1%

Cu ore

-

-

-

-

-

Slack et al. (1999) – proton probe

Dubinina and Kornilovich (1968)

Lebedev (1937)

Bi

0.5%

Pegmatite

Paraiba, Brazil

Henn et al., (1990)

Po

       

At

       

Rn

       

Fr

       

Ra

       

Ac

       

Th

[36.8 ppm]

[18.7 ppm]

Granite

-

-

-

Jiang et al. (1997)

Roda et al., (1995)

Pa

       

U

[36.1 ppm]

[26.4 ppm]

[7 ppm]

tourmalinite

Granite

-

-

-

-

Jiang et al. (1999)

Jiang et al. (1997)

Roda et al., (1995)

Np

       

Pu

       

Am

       

Cm

       

Bk

       

Cf

       

Es

       

Fm

       

Md

       

No

       

Lw

       

Note: These values are the highest that I have found in the literature, or calculated based on stoichiometry of an ideal end member species. In most cases there are multiple entries of an element given due to the possibility of analytical error, especially for those bulk analyses that could contain inclusions of other minerals.

Darrell Henry is the Campanile Charities Professor of Geology and Geophysics at Louisiana State University whose research specialty is metamorphic petrology. Further details of his professional background are included in an accompanying vita or faculty profile.

To contact Darrell Henry call (225)-578-2693, fax (225)-578-2302 or e-mail dhenry@geol.lsu.edu . Address: Department of Geology and Geophysics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.

This page was last updated on 04/17/06.


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