Geol. 4043: Earth
and the Environment
Tuesday - 3:00 - 5:50 pm
E207 Howe-Russell Building (E = East)
"Everything is a poison, nothing is a poison, the
dose alone makes the poison."
- Paracelsus, 1493-1541
Instructor: Dr. Barb Dutrow, Professor
Room 203 Howe-Russell Building (Old Geology = West)
Office hours: By appointment M-F
Note: e-mail is answered within 24 hrs; from 9am - 6 pm M - F
TA: Xiao Tan
Room E340a Howe-Russel Building
Office Hours: 10:30 - noon T, Th and by appointment
Required Text: Reading materials for
the course are assembled into a packet from the Mineralogical
Society of America.
Refer to Dr. Dutrow's email for specific instructions.
Reading assignments should
be completed prior to class.
Recommended Text: Klein
& Dutrow, 2007, Manual of Mineral Science, 23rd
Evaluation: Knowledge of materials, Critical thinking
and analysis of material is an integral portion of this
In class participation, preparation for discussion materials, assignments, and presentations contribute to the overall grading.
Class evaluation is based on two tests (20% midterm and 20% final exam), two projects (10% energy forum, 20% analytical project),
20% assigned class presentations (oral and written) including environmental reports from the media, 10% class participation/quizzes.
Grading follows university rules for +/- for each letter grade: A+ = 97-100 A = 94-96 A- = 93-90.
Note: Texting and use of cellular devices is not permitted during
class unless explicitly authorized by Prof. Dutrow
absences should be reported PRIOR to class.
Course Learning OBJECTIVES:
This course is designed to enhance critical thinking and content knowledge including:
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF FUNDING
The use of the analytical
instruments within the Department of Geology & Geophysics
(Optical CL Microscope; Bruker S2 PUMA XRF; Keyence VHX-7100
Automated Digital Microscope) and the Shared Instrumentation Facility (JEOL JXA-8230 EPMA) is supported by a generous gift from Chevron.
Tentative Lecture and Exam Schedule
check www.geol.lsu.edu/dutrow/env for updates
||Assignments and Reading
prior to class
Come with answers prepared to questions.
MMS = Manual of Mineral Sciences, Klein & Dutrow; RiM
= Reviews in Mineralogy;
IEA report 2021- 2022 - useful resource
||Assignments, Reading Prior to
Class overview: expectations, course-embedded assignments, presentations, critical thinking projects
LSU library informational resources
Earth Materials review, mineralogy, petrology, fluids
Fossil fuel energy, the carbon cycle, and global warming
Review Mineralogy - Paulings Rules (solid solution,
coordination number, mineral structures, chemistry); KD
chpt 4. Fluids - geochemistry
resource: Elements 2020 p. 375-380.
||G&G Seminar: Lessons learned from
global CO2 storage projects
||3:30 pm, E130 HRK
The landscape of reporting Energy and
Sustainability - what it is? How large is the ecosystem? ESG
Solutions to mitigate CO2
- carbon emissions
|Reading: Wildavsky, A. in But is it
Come prepared for discussion on how to read an environmental article, bring an article
Elements, 2007, v. 3
Macfarlane, A."Energy: The Issue of the 21st Century" p. 165-170
Schrag, D."Confronting the Climate - Energy Challenge". p. 171-178
||Solutions to mitigate CO2 - carbon emissions
Geologic carbon sequestration - options
- mineral trapping, solution trapping,
- CO2 phase diagram
- then and now
Mineral Surfaces; Reactivity, porosity, permeability,
Overview of Energy Forum assignment, class presentations
Friedman, S.J., "Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration" p. 179-184
Elements, 2008, v. 4
-Perspectives: v. 4 p 293-299
-Oeklers, E and Cole, D., Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: A solution to a global problem. p 305-310.
-Rubin, E. CO2 Capture and transport. p.311-318
-Ocean storage - 319-324
-Benson, S. and Cole, D., CO2 sequestration in deep sedimentary basins. p. 325-332.
-Oelkers et al. Mineral carbonation of CO2. p333-337.
NAS workshop reports: Carbon management; CO2 dilemma
|3 (Friday) 4pm
LSU G&G Centennial Energy Forum
|Report due Feb. 14
(Assignment on Moodle)
Lecturer - Dr. Matt Loocke
Overview of analytical methods in the Geosciences for solid materials
Tour: The Chevron Geomaterials Lab; facilities for imaging and chemistry of Earth Materials;
Optical CL, microscopy, electron microprobe analyses
|Reading to be assigned -
SERC website - geochemical instrumentation overviews
||Discussion/ Debate: Energy
Geologic Carbon Sequestration (cont),
- serpentinites, rocks,
- natural analogs (class presentations)
Discussion/Debate: Pros, cons of carbon sequestration, LA options
What is it? What are the uncertainties associated with Risk Management
Perspectives: v. 4 p 293-299
Elements, 2013, v. 9 no 2
RiMG 77 Geologic Carbon
||Think Green (and Gold and Purple)
||Mardi Gras Holiday
||Low Carbon Energy Sources -
Renewable Energy and the Energy Transition: How green is
and Solar Energy - materials needed
8; 2012, REEs
-Chakhmouradian & Naldrett, REEs in Ig rocks, p. 347 – 354
-Kumicky et al., REEs in China, 361-368
- Mariano, REE in US
Review REE minerals,
|| Geologic settings of REEs;
Pegmatites, carbonatites, mineralogy and petrology
Specific sources: Mountain Pass, CA ores, bastnasite, China, etc.
Global markets, refining and the environment
Mining in the US vs elsewhere: costs and consequences
Lab: REE bearing minerals
|Elements 8, 2012, REEs
-Chakhmouradian & Naldrett, REEs in Ig rocks, p. 347 – 354
-Kumicky et al., REEs in China, 361-368- Mariano, REE in US
Elements, 2021, v 17, no 5, Carbonatites
-Kamenetsky et al.,, Carbonatites, p. 302-314
-Anenburg et al., Formation of RE Deposits, p. 327-332
-Christy et al, Mineralogy of carbonatites, p. 333-338
IEA report 2021- 2022
Reading from the literature
Aspects of Mining: Toxic Metals and surfaces, the US 1862 mining law
Overview of course-embedded analytical project
CL imaging, review of EMPA
Sign up for lab time
Lab: Optical microscopy on your sample
CL demonstration, thin section scanning
Review EMPA lecture, optical
Review EMPA lecture, optical handouts
Mineralogy of REE deposits
|Chemical analyses of your sample with EMP,
|prepare by knowing likely minerals in your
||Going Electric vehicles: Critical Materials
needed for low carbon - batteries, Lithium
Li minerals, sources, issues
Lab: Analytical project - Determining mineral stoichiometry, mineralogy
|IEA report 2021- 2022
Elements, 2020, v. 15, no 4, Lithium
Bibenne, et al., Society’s dependence on Li, p. 265- 270
Grew, Li minerals, p. 235-240
Bowell, et al., Li Resources, p. 259-264
Fontonte, Ore Deposits, p. 257 - 261
Elements, 2013, v. 9 no 2
Butt, et al., nicket Laterite Ore Deposits, p. 123-127
|last two weeks
||Analytical project - obtaining chemistry of
rocks with REE-bearing minerals, focus on carbonatites
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF FUNDINGThe use of the instruments within the Department of Geology & Geophysics (Optical CL Microscope; Bruker S2 PUMA XRF; Keyence VHX-7100 Automated Digital Microscope) and the Shared Instrumentation Facility (JEOL JXA-8230 EPMA) is supported by a generous gift from Chevron.
|Schedule ~ 2 hrs time in EMP lab with Dutrow/Loocke|
||Geothermal Energy: Introduction,
Overview and Energy Prospects for future, pros, cons
||Readings from the literature|
Energy: Case studies,
EGS in Louisiana; pros, cons
Guest Lecturer - either 4 or 11 April
||MSA Distinguished Lecturer - Dr. Jay Thomas,
Syracuse Univ. Pressure determinations in rocks
Energy - Fuel Cycles, Pros, Cons Nuclear Waste: HL, LL,
TRU; Front End
Nuclear Waste: Back End - Storage/Disposal/Management options/ Geologic Repositories;
US solution - Geologic Repository at Yucca Mtn., NV; History and Plan B
Materials for encasement: storage/adsorption:
Three-mile island - the nuclear stigma;
Lab: materials for containment, betafite, pyrochlor, garnets
|Elements, 2006, v. 2
Nuclear Energy - Elements Magazine, 2006, v. 2
Ewing "The nuclear fuel cycle: A role for mineralogy and geochemistry"
Abdelouas, A. "Uranium Mill Tailings:" p. 335-341.
and Ewing, R., "Spent
Nuclear Fuel". p. 343-349.
at a time": The staged development of repositories for
high level nuclear waste. NRC Report 2003 (Dutrow
was one of the authors)
Nuclear Waste Legislation - Mar.2000
Centennial Lecture - Prof. Rodney Ewing,
|Stanford Univ, NAS member|
||Nuclear Accident - Fukushima
giving presentations, peer evaluations of presentations, rubric for such. Poster preparation
|Elements 2011, v. 8 Fukushima
|28 - Friday
||LSU G&G Rock Star Poster Competition
||Present poster on your analytical project!
||STUDENT Oral PRESENTATIONS of research project|
7:30 - 9:30 AM
Other links: Learn more about the periodic table, minerals and gems
Other useful reading materials:
But is it True? A Citizens Guide to Environmental Issues, A. Widavsky, 1995. Harvard Univ. Press
Others for reference or an interesting read.
Silent Spring, Rachael Carson, 1962, Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston
(A classic, widely credited with starting the environmental movement; bringing to light the consequences of chemicals in the environment- ecology).
Environmental Mineralogy, 2000, Eds. David J. Vaughn and Roy A. Wogelius.
EMU Notes in Mineralogy 2. Eotvos University Press, Budapest.
An Inconvenient Truth. 2006. Al Gore. Rodale Press.
Attendance: Mandatory. If you are going to be absent, you must notify Prof. Dutrow ahead of time for an excused absence.
Make up exams: Lecture exams will be 5 essay questions
Makeup quizzes: None will be given.
Cell Phones: No cell phone use is permitted during class. If you use your cell phone, you will be asked to leave class.
Class is a concentrated study time, if you are on your phone, you are distracted.
with disabilities: Louisiana
University is committed to providing reasonable
accommodations for all persons with
The syllabus is available in alternate formats upon request. If you are seeking classroom accommodations under the Americans with Disabilities Act,
you are required to register with the Disability Services (DS). DS is located in 115 Johnston Hall. Phone is 225/ 578-5919.
To receive academic accommodations for this class, please obtain the proper DS forms and meet with me at the beginning of the semester.
Student Conduct: Louisiana
State University is an interactive community in which
students, faculty, and staff together strive to pursue
truth, advance learning, and
uphold the highest standards of performance in an academic and social environment. It is a community that fosters individual development and the creation of bonds that
transcend the time spent within its gates. To demonstrate my pride in LSU, as a member of its community, I will:
continued success of LSU depends on the faithful commitment
by each community member to these, our basic principles.
There are two areas that we will be particularly alert for in this class:
Plagiarism is an
extremely serious violation of academic integrity. The Code
of Student Conduct defines plagiarism as “the unacknowledged
in work submitted for credit, of someone else’s words, ideas, or data.” (8.1-C.6)
Copying - Copying
from another student's test paper or assignment.
Alcohol Policy (PS-67 Illegal Use of Drugs
and Alcohol Misuse): Louisiana State University is committed to
maintaining an environment which supports the research,
teaching, and service mission
of the University. Although the University respects an employee's right to privacy, the illegal use of drugs or alcohol within the University community interferes with the accomplishment of the
University's mission. Louisiana State Law prohibits the consumption, possession, distribution, possession with intent to distribute, or manufacture of drugs described as controlled dangerous
substances in the Louisiana Revised Statutes 40:964; and other statutes define the illegal possession and/or use of alcohol. As such, the Department has reaffirmed the University policy of
alcohol-free and drug-free environment on University property at all times and in areas and at times and locations where an assembly of students and faculty would be viewed as representative of LSU
(field trips and field camp property as both represent LSU)
(c) Barbara L. Dutrow